While many sea urchin stings can be mild and their symptoms go away within a few days, there is a possibility of them becoming seriously infected. Therefore, it’s important to know how to act in these situations and when to seek professional help.

What are the symptoms of a sea urchin sting?

Sea urchin sting

Abbas Kanani, a pharmacist at Chemist Click, explains that, after being stung by a sea urchin, you’ll see visible swelling around the area that has been stung, along with redness around the entrance point of the sea urchin spines. It’s important to note that the colouring around the affected area could also be blue. The area will feel very sensitive and possibly sore, and if the sea urchin pierces the skin, you may see bruising. You should be wary of any spines that have broken off within the body which could move deeper if not removed, as this can cause tissue, bone, or nerve injuries. If a sea urchin stings you more than once, you could have more severe symptoms, which range from extreme shock to paralysis. Other severe symptoms include:

  • Severe swelling around the affected area.
  • Severe bleeding.
  • Vomiting.
  • Dizziness.
  • Loss of consciousness.

In extreme cases, particularly if left untreated, sea urchin stings can lead to infections and even death, which is why it’s important to respond quickly and have them treated.

Are sea urchins poisonous?

Sea urchins have two types of venomous organs — spines and pedicellariae. A sea urchin’s spine is their natural sting. It happens when their venomous spikes puncture the skin and inject painful venom. They can penetrate deep and there’s a risk of them breaking off inside the body. On the other hand, the pedicellaria is a small wrench or claw-shaped appendage with a movable jaw. This is an active sting from the sea urchin that, if left to move deeper under the skin, could cause dermatitis, joint and muscle pain.

What causes a sea urchin sting?

«Lightly touching a sea urchin doesn’t usually trigger a sting, but if you add any amount of pressure — for example, stepping on a sea urchin — its pedicellariae will likely release venom and sting you,» Kanani explains. Basically, this is a sea urchin stinging out of instinct. It is their natural reaction to use their defence mechanism — which is always engaged — when feeling threatened or endangered. However, they also have a more active sting, which are the jaws

What is the deadliest type of sea urchin?

Sea urchins are typically found in areas with rocky bottoms. This could be shallow waters or deep-sea floors. There are various kinds of sea urchins, the most dangerous being the flower sea urchin (Toxopneustes pileolus). These sea urchins are so venomous that they can pierce through wetsuits. Flower sea urchins are found either individually or in groups, and are widespread in the Southeast Atlantic and Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Meanwhile, the most common type of sea urchin is the sea chestnut. This species, (Paracentrotus lividus) is located in the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. They are common in up to 30 metres of water.

How to treat a sea urchin sting

Kanani’s top tips for treating a sea urchin sting yourself

  1. Use tweezers to pluck out any of the urchin’s spine left in the skin immediately. Don’t use your bare hands.
  2. Apply shaving cream and lightly scrape with a razor where a pedicellaria has entered the skin.
  3. Soak the affected area in hot water for at least an hour.
  4. Take over-the-counter painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen to ease pain.
  5. Apply topical creams such as hydrocortisone to reduce itching and inflammation.
  6. Seek medical help if symptoms worsen or give you cause for concern.

When should you see a doctor for a sea urchin sting?

You should seek immediate medical help if you notice any signs of infection or experience the following symptoms:

  • Fatigue.
  • Muscle weakness.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Loss of feeling in the body.
  • Fainting.

You should also see a doctor if your sting is a deep puncture wound. Try to answer their questions about how the sting happened and what your symptoms are as best as you can. A few days after being stung, if your pain continues or your symptoms haven’t improved, seek professional advice, as your sting could be infected. There’s a chance the sea urchin’s spines may require surgical removal if they are too deep inside the body for you to remove yourself. Your doctor might also prescribe you antibiotics or send you to A&E if they believe it is necessary.

Potential complications of a sea urchin sting

Kanani assures that, with treatment, the pain and symptoms of a sea urchin sting should subside within five days. However, complications are possible, especially if the venom penetrates deeply. For example, tissue necrosis (the death of body tissue) can lead to arthritis and joint stiffness. In rare occasions, respiratory failure is a possibility, and should be treated immediately. Call the emergency services straightaway and they can provide oxygen and possible ventilation if needed. While uncommon, paralysis and even death are possible, which is why responding quickly and treating a sea urchin sting are vital.

Tips for avoiding sea urchin stings

  • Observe sea urchins from afar — while nice to look at, they should not be touched.
  • Avoid swimming at night if the area is known to have sea urchins.
  • Wear water shoes for protection, particularly in shallow, rocky waters.
  • Tread carefully in water to avoid accidentally stepping on sea urchins.
  • Watch where you put your hands to avoid surprise contact with a sea urchin.

“Take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but bubbles.” While most divers know and respect this mantra, there are certain instances when unexpected or unavoidable immediate contact with marine animals can occur. Tide pools and intertidal zones are great places to observe marine wildlife, but they also present the risk of getting too close to something that can intentionally or inadvertently injure you—like the sea urchin. Sea urchins are spike-covered spherical creatures that are usually just small enough to fit in the palm of your hand—they can measure around 1.2 to 3.9 inches in diameter. They also come in different colors, although the most common are black, brown, purple, red and green.

Are Sea Urchins Poisonous?

Sea urchins are related to “harmless” sea creatures like sand dollars, sea stars, and sea cucumbers. They are omnivorous creatures that only feed on very small plants and animals like seaweed, algae, plankton, and decaying organic matter. Their insides (gonads and roe) are actually considered a popular seafood delicacy. Despite the fact that they aren’t considered dangerous, sea urchins do have a physical defense mechanism that can be harmful—their sharp spines, which are certainly hard to miss. These spikes, which cover nearly every inch of their bodies, serve as their first defense against predators. The spines themselves are not venomous, but they do have pedicellariae (small, claw-shaped jaws attached to the sea urchin’s shell) that bite and release painful venom to serve as their second defense system. These features make sea urchins difficult for people to observe up close, so swimmers and divers should always be cautious when treading shallow waters where there are rocks, coral reefs, and hidden crevices.

How to Treat a Sea Urchin Injury

The main disadvantage of being impaled by a sea urchin, besides possible envenomation, is that the spines are very brittle and can be left embedded deep into your skin tissues. Some victims of sea urchin stings will have spines stuck beneath their skin long after the initial contact, either due to the difficulty of removal or indifference to their presence. Sea urchin puncture wounds will often look bruised (blue-black in color). The area may also become swollen and reddish, plus it can get infected if the sting is not treated right away. While a sea urchin sting is easily treated, it’s nothing to be cavalier about—do not ignore it. Multiple puncture wounds (especially deep ones) can be severe enough to cause intense fatigue, shock, paralysis, breathing problems, or even respiratory failure leading to death. Thus, it’s important to seek immediate medical attention if you’re unable to remove the spines yourself. Here are some tips to remember when attempting to treat your own wounds:

Carefully remove the spines

It’s important that you immediately remove any spines that have gotten into your skin. If the spines are protruding enough that you can get a hold of them with tweezers or pliers, do so slowly and with care. If there are any pedicellariae, you can use a razor to gently scrape them out of your skin. Some people are familiar with removing splinters with a needle and may find that method to be effective with sea urchin spines, but it is crucial that you sterilize the needle before you use it to dig into your flesh. As previously mentioned, sea urchin spines are brittle and, like splinters, have the potential to break into pieces as you attempt to remove them. Take care not to crush the spine with your implement and use as steady a hand as possible.

Clean the affected area

Once you’re sure that you’ve removed all signs of the sea urchin from your body, it’s time to wash the area. Whether you use an antiseptic cleanser, hydrogen peroxide, or just good ol’ soap and water, it is very important that you clean the punctured area to avoid any risk of bacterial infection. Use the hottest water you can possibly stand without scalding yourself and soak the affected area in it for about 20 minutes until your skin prunes. You can even add Epsom salt to boost the skin softening effect. Soaking in hot water is advantageous for a few reasons: it helps manage the pain, keeps the wound clean, and will also enable easier removal of the spines because your skin will be more pliable. If you have been envenomed and are experiencing pain, a vinegar soak will help neutralize the toxins and relieve some of the discomfort.

Recovery and aftercare

For a couple of days after the removal of the spines, continue to soak the wound in hot water several times a day. Apply a topical antibiotic ointment like Neosporin on the affected area thrice a day after washing and drying the skin. Topical hydrocortisone cream can also be used for any itching around the affected area.
You can also take over-the-counter pain medications like Advil (ibuprofen) and Tylenol (acetaminophen) if you are experiencing any pain.
Be sure to use fresh bandages to keep puncture wounds clean until they have healed.

Consider seeking medical help

If you have tried but failed to successfully remove the spines, see a medical professional as soon as possible. Remember that you should not attempt to do the removal yourself if you are dealing with deeply embedded or large spines, multiple or deep puncture wounds, or punctures near joints, as these may require surgical removal. Also, call your doctor if you are experiencing increased pain; if the pain doesn’t go away after the fourth day; or if you see any signs of infection, like swelling, warmth, redness, and fever. Your doctor will either give you a full course of antibiotics that can be taken at home or have you admitted to the hospital to receive antibiotic treatment through an IV. Being extra careful doesn’t always mean that you won’t get hurt or injured—especially when you’re in the ocean. It’s even possible to get stung by a spiky sea urchin even when you’re on the shore because some of them do end up on the sand, where people can accidentally step on them. What you need to remember is that it is important to have yourself treated immediately to avoid any serious complications like infections, spikes migrating deep inside your body, or other dangerous bodily reactions that can lead to more dangerous health risks.

Continuing Education Activity

Sea urchin envenomation occurs when a sea urchin spine penetrates the soft tissue of the victim. Frequently spines break off and remain in the soft tissue, causing tenosynovitis, granulomas, or systemic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, paresthesias, weakness, abdominal pain, syncope, hypotension, and respiratory distress. This activity examines how to properly evaluate and manage sea urchin envenomation and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in caring for affected patients. Objectives:

  • Identify the epidemiology of sea urchin envenomation.
  • Describe the evaluation of sea urchin envenomation.
  • Outline the management options for sea urchin envenomations.
  • Explain interprofessional team strategies to enhance the prevention and management of sea urchin envenomation in order to improve patient outcomes.

Access free multiple choice questions on this topic.


Sea urchins are part of the phylum Echinodermata which also includes starfish. Sea urchins have globular bodies covered by calcified spines. The spines are either rounded at the tip or hollow for envenomation. The also can have pedicellariae that can grasp and envenomate, typically with more venom than in the spines. Echinoderms possess a distinctive endoskeletal tissue called stereom, which is composed of calcite organized into a mesh-like structure, in addition to dermal cells and fibers. Stereom forms structural elements that can embed into human tissue as spines. When stepped on, these spines cause painful puncture wounds with immediate pain, bleeding, and edema. They can cause severe muscle ache which can last up to 24 hours.[1][2][3]


Sea urchin envenomation occurs when a spine penetrates soft tissue. Frequently spines can break off into the victim. A retained spine can cause tenosynovitis or a granuloma.[4] It can also cause systemic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, paresthesias, weakness, abdominal pain, syncope, hypotension, and respiratory distress.[1]


Echinoderm envenomation does not represent a significant public health problem although little epidemiologic data are available. There are many species of sea urchins in all oceans. Marine envenomation by sea urchins can happen to swimmers, fishermen, divers, surfers. Most incidents of envenomation occur in tropical and subtropical waters, and are most common among divers, especially in shallow water near rocky shores. The American Association of Poison Control Centers’ 2010 and 2011 annual reports document approximately 1800 aquatic exposures in the United States yearly, with approximately 500 treated.[5]


Urchin venoms are comprised of various toxins including glycosides, hemolysins, proteases and can be mixtures of high-molecular-weight proteins and low-molecular-weight compounds such as histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin.[1]In many cases, envenomation leads to mast cell degranulation, disruption of cell metabolism, interference with neuronal transmissions, and myocardial depression. Subsequently, envenomation can cause significant pain, dermatitis, paralysis, cardiovascular collapse, and respiratory failure.[5]


Contact with sea urchin spines and envenomation may trigger a vigorous inflammatory reaction and can proceed to tissue necrosis.


Urchin venoms contain steroid glycosides, hemolysins, proteases, serotonin, and cholinergic substances.[1]

History and Physical

A typical history will involve an individual who accidentally stepped on a sea urchin spine while in shallow water within the past 24 hours. The patient will describe an immediate, incapacitating burning pain which localizes to the puncture wound. This burning may last several hours, and wound pressure exacerbates it. There may be systemic symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, paresthesias, weakness, abdominal pain, syncope, hypotension, and respiratory distress. On physical exam, there may be bleeding, edema, erythema, and warmth at and surrounding the puncture site. A spine may or may not be visible. In some instances, there may exist dark blue or black pigmentation (temporary tattooing) to surrounding tissues from dark-colored spines. Following the severe burning pain, localized edema, erythema, warmth, and bleeding may develop. In severe cases, nausea, vomiting, paresthesias, muscular paralysis, and respiratory distress may occur. Delayed sequelae include wound tattooing as the pigment is leeched from dark-colored spines into the surrounding tissue, synovitis if the spine violates a joint space, secondary wound infection, or granuloma formation if there is retention of foreign material.


There are no specific laboratory tests indicated in the management of echinoderm envenomation. Radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, or MRI may be helpful in spine localization and removal.

Treatment / Management

Removal of all visible spines should be prompt, as they can continue to cause envenomation even when detached from the urchin body. The wounded area should be submerged in hot water (40 C — 46 C), as tolerated by the patient, for 30-90 minutes, or until there is substantial pain relief. Care should be taken not to cause thermal burns. Oral analgesia should also is a consideration. Tetanus vaccine status should be updated. Occasionally, local anesthetic infiltration or a nerve block may be a useful adjunct to pain relief. Wounds are to be irrigated, debrided, and explored for retained spines. If spines are easily visualized and reached, they should be removed. Even in the absence of a spine, a dark discoloration may indicate dye in the tissues. If this is the case, the discoloration should resolve within 48 hours. If spines have entered a joint or are close to neurovascular structures, the joint may require splinting, and an appropriate consult to surgery made. If the patient experiences reactive neuropathy, it may respond to a systemic corticosteroid. In addition to the initial pain and tissue damage, secondary infections are common. If there are some retained spines, granulomas may develop, which may require excision. Arthritis from retained spines may also develop, which may require synovectomy.[1][5] No antivenoms are currently available for Echinoderm species. Treatment is supportive. Prophylactic antibiotics are typically not indicated, except in persons with deep wounds, persons with significant morbidities, or those who are immunocompromised. Once the presence of an infection is established, therapy must be instituted, to include coverage for potential marine pathogens. Common organisms associated with marine trauma include Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, Vibrio vulnificus, and Mycobacterium marinum. If antibiotics coverage is warranted, treatment should be for 7-14 days duration. Oral Ciprofloxacin 500 mg PO BID, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 160/800 mg PO BID, or Doxycycline, 100 mg PO BID can be used.[1] Broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics are indicated for severe wound infections or sepsis.

Differential Diagnosis

Cellulitis — Inflammation of skin and soft tissue following an Echinoderm sting may resemble cellulitis. A history of stepping on a spine and immediate pain following the event will rule out simple cellulitis. Contact Dermatitis — If the patient presents several days after the inciting event with a more progressive infection, it can resemble the pustular appearance of contact dermatitis. A history of stepping on a spine in the ocean should rule out this diagnosis. Anaphylaxis — Echinoderm stings can cause systemic symptoms that can mimic anaphylaxis. On initial presentation, if an unstable patient is unable to provide a history, treatment is supportive. Stingray and Starfish envenomation are also differentials.

Toxicity and Side Effect Management

Management is supportive, and there is no specific toxicity or side effects, other than potential antibiotic side effects.


Local and systemic effects are both possible following echinoderm envenomation. However, there is no clear link between echinoderm envenomation and death found in the current literature.


Systemic symptoms such as cardiovascular collapse and cellulitis are the most common complications.

Postoperative and Rehabilitation Care

If surgical debridement is needed, the standard of care should apply.


If the spine has entered a joint or is close to a neurovascular structure, the patient should receive a surgical referral.

Deterrence and Patient Education

Advise patients to be vigilant and alert of their surrounding, especially when they are swimming or walking in a large body of water. Most injuries caused by sea urchins result from inadvertently stepping on a spine. Wading barefoot, especially at night, should be avoided. Shoes and diving gear offer some protection but are easily penetrable by a sharp spine.

Pearls and Other Issues

Urchin toxins are heat labile and therefore hot water immersion is very effective in neutralizing these toxins and reducing the pain.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

A vital step in the appropriate treatment of an echinoderm envenomation is the identification of the actual event. Upon completion of this step, initiation of proper therapy can begin. It is imperative for physicians, nurses, and all caregivers to communicate effectively and to establish roles, to provide timely management of this ailment to the patient.

Review Questions

Sea urchin


Sea urchin. Image courtesy S Bhimji MD


Hornbeak KB, Auerbach PS. Marine Envenomation. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2017 May;35(2):321-337. [PubMed: 28411930]
Bottjer DJ, Davidson EH, Peterson KJ, Cameron RA. Paleogenomics of echinoderms. Science. 2006 Nov 10;314(5801):956-60. [PubMed: 17095693]
Singletary EM, Rochman AS, Bodmer JC, Holstege CP. Envenomations. North Am Clin Med. 2005 Nov;89(6):1195-224. [PubMed: 16227060]
Rossetto AL, de Macedo Mora J, Haddad Junior V. Sea urchin granuloma. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2006 Sep-Oct;48(5):303-6. [PubMed: 17086323]
Balhara KS, Stolbach A. Marine envenomations. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2014 Feb;32(1):223-43. [PubMed: 24275176]

Sea urchins are sphere-shaped or flat creatures that live in the ocean and are completely covered in protective spines. On the tips of these spines are tiny claw-like pincers called pedicellariae. Sea urchins won’t attack you, but because they live in shallow water and like to hide near rocks, you could step on or touch one accidentally. You probably won’t get stung if you lightly touch a sea urchin, but if you make contact with any amount of pressure, like if you step on a sea urchin, the sea urchin’s pedicellariae will likely release venom and sting you. Sea urchin stings aren’t usually fatal, but they are dangerous. You should be aware of the symptoms and treatments so you can get professional help if you need it.


If you get stung, your symptoms could vary depending on which of the 950 species of sea urchin has stung you. The most common symptoms for a single, shallow-water sea urchin puncture include:

  • Swelling in and around the area where you were stung
  • Redness around the spine’s entrance point
  • Sensitivity or pain
  • Infection if the sting is not treated
  • Blue coloring where the spine pierced your skin
  • Muscle aches

If a sea urchin stings you more than once when you encounter it, your symptoms will be more serious and may likely include:

  • Extreme tiredness
  • Loss of strength
  • Signs of shock
  • Loss of feeling or the ability to move
  • Trouble breathing
  • Death


There are several ways you can treat a sea urchin sting at home. Try following these steps to cure your symptoms:

  • Soak the affected area in hot water for at least an hour.
  • If the sea urchin’s spine broke off and is stuck in your skin, pluck it out with tweezers.
  • If there are pedicellariae in your skin, cover the area with shaving cream and lightly scrape with a razor.
  • Flush and scrub the sting with soap and water.
  • Leave the injury open. Do not bandage it.
  • Take regular doses of acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve pain.

Another possible method for removing the spine involves using vinegar because it helps dissolve spines. Soak the affected area in vinegar or place a vinegar-soaked cloth on it. Alternate between vinegar and hot water a few times a day. The most important thing you can do is take the spine and pedicellariae out as soon as possible. If you can’t get the spine out yourself, you’ll need to visit your healthcare provider. They will make a small incision or perform surgery to remove it, depending on how deep into your skin the spine has traveled. If you’re feeling any of the more serious side effects or if you were stung near your elbow, knee, or other joint, seek emergency help immediately.


If your injury is extreme or if you don’t treat it correctly, you can face serious health consequences. Paralysis, respiratory failure, tissue necrosis, and death are all possible complications of sea urchin stings. Tissue necrosis is when skin cells don’t get enough oxygen or blood, and they die. It happens after the skin undergoes an external injury or serious trauma. If you have tissue necrosis, the affected part of your skin will be painful, red, swollen, numb, and have blisters. You can avoid it by keeping your sea urchin sting clean. If you leave a spine or pedicellariae in your skin for too long, it will burrow deeper into your skin. If it gets too deep into your tissue, it could cause dermatitis, joint and muscle pain, or a granulomatous nodular lesion. A granulomatous nodular lesion is a clump of cells that form small nodules, or bumps, underneath the skin. They happen when something irritating pierces the skin. Your body forms granulomatous nodular lesions to try and keep strange substances, like sea urchin venom, from spreading. To avoid all of these complications, contact a healthcare provider as soon as you notice any serious symptoms or if you have symptoms for more than a week.


If you’re in shallow or rocky areas of the ocean, keep an eye out for sea urchins. Watch where you step and where you put your hands to avoid surprise contact with them. Don’t go into the ocean at night if you know there are sea urchins in the area. Wearing water shoes or flippers might protect you from stepping on a sea urchin’s spines. A sharp spine or a high-pressure touch will still probably end up in a sting, even if you are wearing something on your feet. For the health of sea urchins, you shouldn’t touch them. If you have to touch one to move it out of your way, for example, handle it carefully and avoid putting too much pressure on the spines. If you’re unsure how serious your urchin sting is, contact your healthcare provider for a diagnosis and more information on how to treat your injury.

Sea urchins are spherical and spiny marine animals that inhabit all five oceans of the world.

There are around 950 species of sea urchins, and they can be often found in areas above water at low tide and 16,000 feet (4,876 meters) in depth. Sea urchins feed on algae but can also eat slow-moving or sessile creatures. Their small yet hard shells are covered with primary and secondary spines. A sea urchin typically ranges from one to four inches (10.1 centimeters), but larger species can reach up to 14 inches (35.5 centimeters). Even though they don’t have means of propulsion, urchins move freely — between three and 20 inches (50.8 centimeters) per day — using their flexible tube feet assisted by spines. Are sea urchins poisonous? Some species, like the flower urchin, feature venomous spines and can be deadly. This particular species is seldom found in the Pacific and Indian oceans. People with allergic reactions to bites or stings should take extra precautions and get medical assistance right after they are bitten or stung by these animals. Urchins use their long, sharp spines to defend against their most common predators: lobsters, triggerfish, crabs, California sheephead, wolf eels, and sea otters. Sea urchins: a small marine creature equipped with more or less venomous spines | Photo: Shutterstock

Sea Urchins and Humans

Urchins can be found on any beach or coastal area in the world — in the tropics, temperate zones, and even polar regions. Therefore, they’re a threat to distracted beachgoers who walk along the shoreline, barefoot, simply enjoying seawater. So, whenever someone steps on a sea urchin, they will suffer puncture wounds. In addition, the injury may develop into a more or less lethal infection, depending on the species. Unfortunately, a sea urchin sting is always painful and will damage and hurt the skin’s tissue. After being stung, the injured area will swell and become inflamed. An infection caused by a venomous sea urchin will trigger several abnormal symptoms, including dizziness, breathing problems, chest pain, heart rate changes, loss of consciousness, nausea, and vomiting. In the worst-case scenario, the venom will enter the bloodstream and cause death. And yes, people have already lost their lives after stepping on a sea urchin sting. So, if you have inadvertently touched or stepped on a sea urchin, you’ve got to treat the wound as quickly as possible.

Sea Urchin Sting Treatment

Here’s what to do to remove the spines for your skin:

  1. Immerse the affected area for 30 to 90 minutes in hot water or vinegar to help smoothen or dissolve the spines;
  2. Use tweezers to remove all spines stuck in your foot, hand, or body;
  3. Apply shaving cream to the injured area and remove the pedicellaria (moveable stalked structures with jaws) by scraping with a razor;
  4. Scrub the wound with soap and water;
  5. Rinse the injury with fresh water;

If you find signs of infection — redness, pus, or heat — apply a topical ointment and consult with your doctor. Also, spines may require surgical removal if they have entered the bone tissue. You may also relieve the pain with ibuprofen (every six hours) or acetaminophen pain relievers (every four hours). Sea urchin stings may be avoided. Whenever exiting the ocean, look carefully around you, particularly in rocky areas, intertidal pools, near coral and reef zones, and wet sand.

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